Kancha or spinning top are used to play games in India and Pakistan. This has been a traditional game of India which used to be liked and played by every kid, but now it is losing its importance due to the interest taking priorities. This game used to be popular for kids. It is still played in the inner colonies of old area of Udaipur. Lattu is a part of life for children in Indian villages.


The History of the Spinning Top :

1)      The spinning top has been in existence for thousands of years. Like many traditional games, such as marbles, the earliest tops are made from clay, and were discovered in the Middle Eastas early as 3500 BC, it is likely that children would have been spinning small rocks long before.

2)      Later wooden spinning tops emerged in around 2000 BC, and early spinning tops made from bones have been found in Europe.

3)      Those spinning tops were much simpler than many tops found in old fashioned toy shops today, and it did spin with a twist of the fingers.

4)      It is such a surprising thing that a wooden top can balance itself on a point of a nail.  It is because of what is known as the “Gyroscopic Effect”, which combines the universal laws of inertia (& momentum), friction and gravity, and the transference of potential to kinetic energy.

5)      Spinning tops have been used throughout history for many purposes. Children have used them for centuries as toys and pastimes. They have also been used in prophecy, gambling and as gifts to honor the Gods, or in some cultures, as items to take into the afterlife.  Today, spinning tops provide play and distraction. They are also used in tournaments and championships in games of skill as well as in role-playing games.

The other names for this game :

1)      Bambaram in Karnataka / Tamil

2)      Lattu in Urdu

3)      Top in English

4)      Bongaralu Aata in Andhra Pradesh

Requirenment for Top :

1)      Wooden top ( coloring is an option. It could be made interesting by designing it in any way we need).

2)      Pointed nail for getting the centre.

3)      String which is useful for spinning the top, it is also used for lifting up the spinning top.

How to play the game :

1)  Top is a very simple game having very simple rules to follow.

2)  All the players have to go for the ‘toss’ which is known as ‘Goes’ at the same time. The ‘Goes’ process is, after counting 1, 2, 3 all the players should wind their tops with their ropes. Then unwind it by releasing it from the rope,  throwing it on the ground to rotate and pick it up with the rope as quickly as possible. It depends on managing the shortest rope length which helps you to rotate it and allowing you to catch it back with the rope.

3)   Conditions for losing the toss :

a)      If the top fails to rotate on its nail on the ground – it is called ‘Mattai’ , which means you lose the toss.

b)      If you fail to catch the top through the rope then you lose the toss.

c)       The last person to finish the ‘Goes’ lose as well.

4)      The player who loses the toss will keep his top in the circle drawn on the ground. The rest of the players will have to attack on the top which is spinning in the centre of the circle.

5)      The players who managed to win the toss successfully will try to spin their tops over the top in the circle trying to break them OR trying to get it out of the circle.

6)      The other way of playing is :

a)      A group of players having their own tops will try spin their tops one by one. One player amongst the group will be keeping track of all the players time score. Whoever manages to spin the top for a longer duration will win the match.


a)      If you land your top’s nail on top of the top inside the circle, it would leave a mark called ‘Aakkar’.

b)      The best player’s top will have minimum number of Aakar as it is even the matter of prestige.

c)       To avoid the top getting too many Aakar, the players always keep a spare top ‘ Pondatti Top’ which means wife in Tamil. The players use ‘Purushan Top’ (husband in Tamil) to give Aakar o others’ top and use Pondatti Top to receive Aakars from others.

d)      Players always take god care of Purushan Top.

e)      They will pick the nails from blacksmith’s shop, sit with him to see if he inserted the nail in the top without any cracks.





Lakhoti is one of the most important traditional game which is played all over India. It is also known by Kancha, Golli, Goti and Marbles (English). This game is considered as one of the street games and this game increases the aiming and concentration skills.


1)      People have been playing marbles and marble like games for thousands of years. It is thought that marble started with the cave people playing with small pebbles or balls of natural clay.

2)      Clay balls have been found in the tomb of Egypt, they have also been found in Native American burial grounds. They have also been discovered in pyramids.

3)      It is also said that marbles might have originated in Harappan Civilization in Pakistan near the river Indus. A lot of different marbles were found on excavation near Mohenjo-daro. They were commonly made of clay, stone or glass.

4)      Ceramic marbles entered inexpensive mass production in the 1870s.

5)      In 1846 a German glass blower invented the marble scissors (a mold to make marbles) that revolutionized the process of making marbles.

6)      In 1890, the first machine that made marbles were made in Germany and later that year in the U.S.

7)      In 1950, several types of marbles were invented and experimented. First, in Japan the cat’s eye type marble was created by injecting colored glasses into the normal marble. Then in U.S people found out that if you bake your marbles before they cool you will get crackled effect.

8)      Perhaps the biggest event took place when in 1960 Neil Armstrong (the first man on the moon) describes the earth as a big blue marble.

9)      These days marbles are made of all sort of materials.Glass is very popular. Clay marbles are also made but are not so accurate as compared to glass marbles. Almost all marbles are machine made. Glass marbles are made by melting glass in a furnace and poured into the molds, then colored glasses are injected into the molten marbles by creating design like cat eyes.

10)   For thousands of years marbles have proved to be the most interesting and popular Indian traditional game which is also played all over the wold.

Aiming Technique

When you start aiming at the marble, the marble is held tightly in the forefinger. Then its stretched back like a bow and arrow by the pressure of the other hand’s forefinger. Then the goti is shot by releasing the finger. While pushing the marble the thumb should firmly touch the ground.

How To Play

1)      To decide which player gets the first chance, two lines are drawn on the ground – one about half a foot and the other three feet away from the hole. The players stand at the second line and try to throw the marbles into the hole. The person whose marble is closest to the hole gets the chance to play first.

2)      One way of playing is by throwing the goli into the hole.

a)      Each player contributes two marbles. The first player throws all the marbles aiming at the whole by one hand.

b)      In those two marbles one may fall in the hole and other outside the hole or both outside the hole. Then the co players choose a marble, and then the first player is asked to hit the selected marble with another marble that belongs to him. If he succeeds, he wins all the marbles in the hole. If not, he gets the one with which he hits.

c)       The next player takes his turn with the remaining marbles.

d)      If all the player’s marbles does not go into the hole at the first try then the second round starts where the players have to strike out the way of the marbles thrown by the other boys and try to push the marble into the whole.

e)      The player who ends with the largest number of marbles is the winner.

3)      The other way of playing marble is this:

a)      The marbles are played in a triangle. A triangle is drawn on the ground with a chalk or with a stick. Then a line is drawn about 7 feet away from where each one tries to hit the marble.

b)      So you have to hit the marble. How many ever you hit, those marbles are yours leaving less marble in the triangle for the other players to hit.



4)      The other way is :

a)      A square is drawn on the ground with a chalk or a stick.

b)      Marbles are arranged in the square.

c)       The players turn by turn tries to hit the marble.

d)      The number of marbles that the player after hitting tries to roll out of the square is his. The player who manages to get large number of marbles wins the game.


Even it could be played in a circle shape.


Satoliya (The seven stone)



Satoliya is now commonly known as Lagori is the game of seven stone. This is not known much by other countries as it was played in the villages of India which then found its way in the Urban area.

This game is also known by other names like :

a)      Dikori

b)      Lagoori

c)       Lingocha (Hyderabad)

d)      Lingorchya (Maharashtra)

e)      Pitthu (Haryana)

f)       Satoliya (Rajasthan)

g)      Satodiya (Gujarat)

h)      Yedu Penkulata (Andra Pradesh)

i)        Dabba Kali (Kerala)

j)        Ezhu Kallu (Tamil Nadu)

Things Required to Play :

1)      A ball : Tennis ball or rubber ball types (not to hard)

2)      & stones : If not stones then its substitute.

3)      Two teams . Minimum 2 – 3 players in each team. More the players, a lot more fun.

How To Play :



1)      To start the game two team with equal number of players are required.

2)      To decide who shall take the attacking role first, a coin is tossed.

3)      Seven stones or any of the substitutes should be on top of each other as a pile within a circle. The defending team will take their positions for the fielding purpose. The position of fielding team will be wicket keeper who will be standing behind the stones and others around the stones randomly as fielders stand in cricket. All the players belonging to the attacking team will be taking their position behind the crease line in an appropriate distance away from the pile of stones.

4)      The attacking team will be getting three chances to hit the pile of stones with the ball in either of the ways i.e. underarm or overarm , to knock the pile of stones.

5)      The attacking team has to hit the pile of stones in three hit.

a)      Opponent player catches the ball in one tip and stones are not destructed then the player will be out and the next player will come.

b)      If the opponent player can not catch the ball and stones are also not destructed, then he will get another chance up to three. After three chances he will be out and the next player will attack.

c)       If the opponent player catches the ball and also stones are destructed, then player will get a chance from ONE.

d)      The opponent player can not catch the ball and the stones are destructed, then the real game begins.

6)       If they fail, then the defending and attacking team interchange places and continue to play, with one point to the defending team in the case of worst aiming skills of the attacking team.

7)      As soon as the ball knocks off the pile of stones, the defender team will get hold of the ball and try their best to get the opponent team members OUT by hitting them with the ball in their leg below the knees.

8)      The aim of the attacking team is to rearrange the pile of stones and trace the circle three times with their fingers before the other team can make all the players OUT.

9)      If they succeed doing that, their team gets a point and they get a chance to throw ball again. But, if all the players are OUT, then the defending team will get a chance to hit the ball and will gain a point.

10)   Fielding team cannot run while having ball in the hand, they can pass the ball to their teammates.

11)   If batting team is able to arrange stones back they will got one point and their all players who are out will alive again.

12)   If fielding team is able to hit the ball to any one of batting team member then whole batting team will be out and fielding team will do batting.

13)    The team which scores seven points first will be winner.

These additional rules make the game even more interesting.

  • Clearly mark the boundary. If any of the seekers crosses it then he is out.
  • If the person trying to knock down the pile cannot do it in three tries then he is out.
  • In any of the three tries, if the thrower’s ball does not knock down the pile and is caught by an opponent after the first bounce then the thrower is out.
  • If the seekers succeed in restoring the pile then they can use the point scored to buy back their ousted team mate


  • Throwing the ball;
  • Evading the ball;
  • Building the pile of stones;
  • Distracting the opposite team from building the pile

Gilli Danda


Gilli Danda

Cricket played with a stick instead of a bat is exactly the structure of Gilli Danda. Previously Gilli Danda was as amateur sports played in the rural parts of India. The game’s origins in India date back to at least the Maurya Dynasty. It is believed to be the origin of Western games such as cricket, baseball and softball.

The rules are different everywhere and you can have fun making your own rules.

Gilli Danda is known by different names all over India :

1)      Tipcat in English

2)      Dandi – Biyo in Nepali

3)      Alak – Doulak in Persian

4)      Danguli in Bengali

5)      Chinni – Dandu in Kannada

6)      Kuttyum Kolum in Malayalam

7)      Viti – Dandu in Marathi

8)      Kitti – Pul in Tamil

9)      Gooti – Billa in Telegu

10)   Gulli Danda in Punjabi

Resources Required

1)      Gilli – a 3 to 6 inches long stick, one inch diameter at the center and tapered at both ends.

2)      Danda – a 2 to 3 feet long stick , one inch in diameter


Number of players

Unlike modern games, any number of players or teams can play this game. That’s precisely the difference between the western and Indian games. However, it is preferred that you have only two teams to avoid unnecessary fights.

Steps Followed To Play

1)      Divide the players into two teams. Let any of the two players be the captains.

2)      Toss a coin. The team which wins the toss can select batting or fielding but not both.

3)      Make the circle with a hole in the centre where the batsman will bat.

4)      The player of the batting team will use danda to bat, while fielding team is spread in the ground to field. There is no bowler in this game.

5)      The batsman hits the gilli at one tapered ends with his danda, and quickly strikes it.

6)      If the batsman strikes the gilli which no fielder is able to catch, then the danda is used to measure the distance from the circle to the point where gilli fell. Each danda’s length adds one point to the batting team.

7)      If the batsman is unable to strike the gilli in 3 continuous chances, the batsman is out.

8)      If the batsman strikes the gilli and the fielder catches it before it touches the ground, then the batsman is out.

9)      The next player of his team comes to bat.

10)   Repeat the above steps unless all the players of the batting team are out. Calculate their total points.

11)   Now the fielding team will bat and the batting team will start fielding. The above steps for the batting team will remain the same.

12)   The team with maximum score will win the match


Gilli danda improves the skills like hand and eye co-ordination, judgement, calculation etc.

Different scoring Techniques

As an amateur youth sport, gilli-danda has many variations. In some versions, the points a striker scores is dependent on the distance the gilli falls from the striking point. The distance is measured in terms of the length of the danda, or in some cases the length of the gilli. Scoring also depends on how many times the gilli was hit in the air in one strike. If it travels a certain distance with two mid-air strikes, the total point is doubled.

Kabadi – The most popular traditional game



Kabadi is the best known Indian Traditional Game. It is a team sport, played mostly in South Asia. The word ‘Kabadi’ is derived from a Hindi word that means, ‘holding your breath,’ which is the activity that underlies all games of Kabadi.



  • Kabaddi was known internationally during 1936, Berlin Olympics.
  • The game was introduced in Indian Olympic game in Kolkata 1938.
  • In 1950 All India Kabadi Federation came into existence which even shaped and made standard rules of Kabadi.
  • The Amateur Kabadi Federation of India (AKFI) was found in 1973.
  • The first national game of men were held in Chennai and women’s were in Kolkata in 1955.
  • AKFI have made their own rules and has the right to modify or change them.
  • The Asian Kabadi Federation was under chairmanship of Mr. Janardan Singh Gehlot / Sharad Pawar.
  • Kabadi was introduced to Japan in 1979. Professor Sundar Ram from India was sent to Japan for two months through The Asian Amateur Kabadi Federation.
  • The game Kabadi was first time included in Asian Games in Beijing in 1990.
  • In Asian games different countries like India, Japan, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Bangladesh took part.
  • India won the gold medal and also won gold at the following six Asian games in :
Asian Games Year
Hiroshima 1994
Bangkok 1998
Busan 2002
Doha 2006
Guangzhou 2010
  • Before which such as West Bengal Police versus the Punjab.
  • Kabadi was cut down in 1992, before which Krishna Guru-Murthy suffered a collapse lung while participating.
  • In the year 1998, Asian game was held at Bangkok, where the Indian Kabadi team won a gold medal.
  • Some of the Arjuna Award winners are Sh.Sadand Mahadeo Shetty, Sh.Shankuntla Panghar Kholavkar, Sh.Shantaram Jaatu, Kumari Monika Nath, Kumari Maya Kashi Nath etc.


Name of the Kabaddi Indian Team :


             Raiders –

  1. Sukhbir Singh Sarawan
  2. Hardavinder Singh Dulla Surakhpuria
  3. Gulzar Singh Moonak
  4. Gurlal Ghanaur
  5. Sandeep Dirba
  6. Gagandeep Singh Gaggi Khiranwal
  7. Talwinder Singh Sonu


              Defenders –

  1. Mangat Singh Mangi
  2. Narinder Kumar Bittu Dugaal
  3. Sikander Singh Kanjhli
  4. Ekam Hathoor
  5. Narinder Nindi Benra
  6. Jagdeep Singh Kaka Ghaniwal
  7. Gurwinder Singh Kahlwan


             Stand By –

  1. Vicky Ghanaur
  2. Talwinder Singh Tinda
  3. Yaadwinder Singh Kotli
  4. Gurpreet Singh Maheru

These are the names of our Indian Kabaddi team.

Rules to be followed


               Players  Play Field Measurement
 1)      Men and Junior Boys  13 x 10 metersMen – Below 80 Kg weightJunior –  Boys : Age 20 years and belowBelow 65 Kg weight 
2)      Women and Junior Girls 12 x 8 metersWomen – Below 70 Kg weightJunior Girls – Age 20 years and belowBelow 60 Kg weight 
3)      Sub Junior Boys and Girls Sub Junior Boys – Age 16 yearsBelow 50 Kg weightSub Junior Girls – Age 16 yearsBelow 50 Kg weight 


1)      The team that wins the toss shall have the choice of the court or raid and the team that loses the toss shall have the remaining choice. In the second half the court shall be changed and the team which did not opted for raid shall send the raider first. The game in the second half shall be continued with the same number of players as it ended in the first half.

2)      The player shall be out if any part of the body touches the ground outside the boundary. But during the struggle the player shall not be out if any part of the body touches outside the boundary by keeping contact of the playfield. The portion of contact must be inside the boundary.

3)      If nay player goes out of the boundary during the course of play, he shall be out. The Umpire or Referee shall try to take out such players at once. The Umpire or the Referee shall declare such players out by calling out their names and not by whistling as the raid may continue.

If an anti goes out of the boundary while holding the raider, the raider shall be declared NOT OUT. The anti who has gone out of the boundary only will be declared OUT.

4)      The raider shall continue chanting “KABADDI” as it is the approved cant. If he fails to keep it while struggling in the opponent’s court, he shall be ordered to go back to his court and the opponent will be given a point and a chance to raid.

5)      The raider must start chanting “KABADDI” before entering opponent’s court. If he starts his cant late, the Umpire or the Referee shall order him to go back and the opponent’s team will get a chance to raid and a point. If the raider loses its cant while in the opponent’s team, he shall be out.

6)      If the raider goes out of turn, the Umpire or Referee shall order him to back and will give a technical point to the opponent team.

7)      Not more than one raider shall enter the opponent’s court at a time, If more than one raider enters then the Umpire or the Referee shall order them to go back awarding a technical point to the opponent’s team and a chance to raid.

8)      After the struggle when the  raider has reached his court, the opponent shall send their raider within 5 seconds. This way alternately each team shall send their raider until the en of the game. In case the raider fails to start the raid within 5 seconds the team loses its chance to raid and opponent’s team gets a technical point.

9)       If a raider is caught by the opponent’s team escapes his attack and reaches his court safely, he shall not be attacked.

10)   When the raider is caught by the opponent’s team players, the antis shall not try to shut his chanting by shutting his mouth using violent techniques which may lead to injuries. If anything like this happens then the Umpire or the Referee shall declare the raider NOT OUT.

11)   No anti shall try to push the raider out of the boundary and same goes with the raider, If any of them tries to do that the Umpire shall declare him OUT  and whoever is pushed out shall be declared NOT OUT by the Umpire or the REFEREE.

12)   During the course of raid, none of the antis shall touch the raider’s court until the completion of the raid. In case any anti touches the raider’s court while the raid is on then the anti’s team will be declared OUT by the Umpire and the raider’s team will be awarded a point.

13)   If a team manages to put out all the players from the opponent’s team and none opponent are entitled to be revived, then the team scores a LONA and two extra points for LONA shall be added to the points scored by the team putting out all the players of the opponent. The play continues and all the players who are out shall enter in their court within 10 seconds otherwise the Referee or Umpire shall award one point to the opponent’s team. If the team fails to enter within one minute, the team shall be scratched from the match and the match shall be awarded to the opponent.

14)   If a raider is warned or any way instructed by any one of his side, the Umpire or Referee shall award a technical point to the opponent

15)   A raider or an anti is not suppose to caught or held by any part of his body other than his limb. The one who breaks the rule shall be declared out and the other NOT OUT.

16)   When one or more players are left during the game and the captain of team declares them out to bring in the full team, the opponent shall score as many points as the players present in the court at the time of declaration as well as two extra points for LONA.

17)   The players shall be revived in the same order as they were out.

How To Play Kabaddi..

Number of teams  : 2

Number of Players per Team : 12

Number of Players in court  : 7

Number of Players in reserve : 5

Dimensions of the Court : 12.50m x 10m, divided by a line into two halves

Timing  : Two 20 minute halves, with a break of five minutes

Criteria : On the basis of age-group and weight

Referee’s : 7 (1 referee, 2 umpires, 2 linesmen, 1 time keeper and 1 scorer )

The team who wins the toss sends a Raider, who enters the opponent’s team murmuring “Kabaddi – Kabaddi” in one breath. The aim of the Raider is to touch at least one or more players of the opposite team and returning back to the court without losing his breath. The players of the opposite team who are touched by the Raider shall be declared OUT by the Umpire or the Referee.

The aim of the opposite team is to hold back the Raider till he loses his breath and stops chanting “ Kabaddi – Kabaddi “ If the Raider fails to enter his court in the same breath, he shall be declared OUT by the Umpire. Each team sends a player alternatively into the opponents’ court. If a player goes out of the boundary line during the course of the play, or if any part of his body touches the ground outside the boundary, he will be out, except during a struggle.

Matches are on the basis of age-groups and weight. Seven officials supervise a match – one referee, two umpires, two linesmen, one time keeper and a scorer.

In India there are two types of Kabaddi based on the rules each one is comfortable playing in. Those are:

1)      Surjeevani

2)      Gaminee

3)      Amar


 The ‘Surjeevani‘ form of Kabadi is played under the Kabadi Federation of India, and is governed by its rules and regulations. In the ‘Surjeevani’ form of Kabadi, one player is revived against one player of the opposite team who is out. i.e. one out, one in.


 In the ‘Gaminee‘ type of Kabadi, there is no revival. When all the players of team are out, the game ends. So there is no time limit in this category.


 In this form of Kabaddi, the players who are touched by the raider, who are declared OUT by the Umpire or the Referee, do not go out of the court. They stay inside and one point is awarded to the team who touched him. This game is also played on the basis of time. i.e. the time is fixed.

In the northern part of the India, like Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi, Kabadi is played in a circle. This is known as ‘Circle Kabadi’ or Amar Kabadi. If it is played without a court, as in some places, it’s called ‘Goongi Kabadi’. The Goongi Kabadi is nothing but wrestling between two players.